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This filmography catalogs all English-language motion pictures that are based on the novels or stories of Thomas Hardy and that are still in existence.1  The purpose of this section is to provide reasonably complete information on the films, including crews, casts, circumstances of production, and availability for home viewing.  If any information presented here is incomplete or inaccurate, or if you have information to add to this section, please contact the Films Page director at paulniemeyer@thomashardyfilms.com.

 

 

Far from the Madding Crowd

Production Companies: Vic Films; Appia Films; Joseph Janni Productions (UK).  Distributor: MGM.  Director: John Schlesinger.  Producer: Joseph Janni.  Screenplay: Frederic Raphael.  Editor: Malcolm Cooke.  Director of Photography: Nicolas Roeg.  Art Director: Roy Smith.  Set Decorator: Peter James.  Production Designer: Richard MacDonald.  Music: Richard Rodney Bennett; conducted by Marcus Dods.  Associate Producer: Edward Joseph.  Casting: Miriam Brickman.  Costumes: Alan Barrett.  Makeup: Bob Lawrance and Phillip Leakey.  Hairstylist: Ivy Emmerton.  Sound Recording: Robin Gregory and John Alred.  Sound Editors: Gordon Daniel and Alfred Cox.  Production Manager: Frank Ernst.  Assistant Directors: Kip Gowans and David Bracknell.  Special Effects: Trading Post Ltd.; effects supervised by Malcolm King.  Folk Song Advisor: Isla Cameron.  Horse Master: Max Faulkner.  Sword Master: Derek Ware. Filmed on locations in Dorset and Wiltshire counties, UK.  Filmed in Panavision and Metrocolor.  Running time: 169 minutes.  Premiere: 18 October 1967.

Cast: Julie Christie (Bathsheba Everdene); Terence Stamp (Sergeant Troy); Peter Finch (William Boldwood); Alan Bates (Gabriel Oak); Fiona Walker (Liddy); Prunella Ransome (Fanny Robin); Alison Leggatt (Mrs. Hurst); Paul Dawkins (Henery Fray); Julian Somers (Jan Coggan); John Barrett (Joseph Poorgrass); Freddie Jones (Cainy Ball); Andrew Robertson (Andrew Randle); Brian Rawlinson (Matthew Moon); Vincent Harding (Mark Clark); Victor Stone (Billy Smallbury); Owen Berry (Old Smallbury); Lawrence Carter (Laban Tall); Pauline Melville (Mrs. Tall); Harriet Harper (Temperence); Denise Coffey (Soberness); Margaret Lacey (Maryann Money); Marie Hopps (Mrs. Coggan); Peter Stone (Teddy Coggan); Walter Gale (Jacob Smallbury); Leslie Anderson, Keith Hooper (Boldwood’s Laborers); Jonathan Newth (Gentleman at Cockfight); Derek Ware (Corporal); John Donegal (Sailor); Peggyanne Clifford (Fat Lady at Circus); Bryan Mosley (Barker); David Swarbrick (Fiddler at Barn Dance); Julius Alba (Gentleman at Party); Frank Duncan, Hugh Walter (Farmers at Corn Exchange); Michael Beint (Laborer); John Garrie (Pennyways).

NOTES:  Far from the Madding Crowd was the first English-language adaptation of a Hardy novel in over forty years, and it was produced on an epic scale.  Director John Schlesinger had made a name for himself with his "social-realistic" dramas and comedies, and it was, accordingly, his desire to film something that harkened to a simpler time that led him to Hardy's novel.  This modest vision apparently clashed with the desires of the executives at MGM, who wanted a blockbuster on the order of Lawrence of Arabia (1962) or Doctor Zhivago (1965).  The resulting film elicited complaints from critics for its length, its leisurely pace, and what some felt was a too-glossy surface; but other reviewers and admirers of Hardy have expressed appreciation for the film's beautiful location photography, its fidelity to the novel, and for the fine performances.  When released in Britain in 1967, Crowd was a modest success; but in America the reviews were dismal, and MGM responded by radically cutting its nearly three-hour running time--which did nothing to save the film at the US box office.  The most recent American videocassette restored the cut footage--and this tape, ironically, marks Crowd's final appearance in North American markets.  The film has yet to be released on DVD in America, but video tapes may still be found.  It is available in both DVD and video formats in Great Britain.

 

Tess

Production Companies: Renn Productions (France); Société Française de Production (France); Burrill Productions (UK).  US Distributor: Columbia.   Director: Roman Polanski.  Producer: Claude Berri.  Screenplay: Gérard Brach, Roman Polanski, and John Brownjohn;.  Editors: Alastair McIntyre and Tom Priestly.  Directors of Photography: Geoffrey Unsworth, B. S. C., and Ghislain Cloquet, A. S. C.  Art Direction: Jack Stephens.  Production Designer: Pierre Guffroy.  Music: Philippe Sarde; conducted by Carlo Savina.  Executive Producer: Pierre Grunstein.  Co-Producer: Timothy Burrill.  Associate Producer: Jean-Pierre Rassam.  Casting: Mary Selway.  Costumes: Anthony Powell.  Makeup: Didier Lavergne; assisted by Paul Le Marinel.  Hairstylist: Ludovic Paris; assisted by Alain Bernard.  Production Manager: Paul Maigret.  Unit Manager: Tadek Zietara.  Second Unit Director: Hercules Bellville.  First Assistant Director: Thierry Chabert.  Second Assistant Directors: Romain Goupil and Hugues de Laugardiére.  Sound Editors: Peter Horrocks and Hervé de Luze.  Sound Mixer: Jean-Pierre Ruh.  Dubbing Mixers: Maurice Gilbert and Alex Pront.  Sound Effects: Jean-Pierre Lelong.  Boom: Louis Gimbel.  Dolby Stereo Sound Consultant: David Watts.  Unit Manager: Alain Depardieu.  Location Managers: Patrick Bordier, Phillippe Desmoulins and Jérôme Jeannet. Voice Teacher: Catherine Fleming.  Dialogue Coach: Jennifer Patrick.  Postsynchronization: Robert Rietti.  Choreographer: Sue Lefton. Filmed on locations in Normandy and Brittany, France.  Filmed in Panavision and Eastmancolor.  Sound Mix: Dolby 70 mm. 6-Track.  Running time: 170 minutes.  Premiere: 25 October 1979.

Cast: Nastassja Kinski (Tess Durbeyfield); Peter Firth (Angel Clare); Leigh Lawson (Alec d’Urberville); John Collin (John Durbeyfield); Rosemary Martin (Joan Durbeyfield); Sylvia Coleridge (Mrs. d’Urberville); Richard Pearson (Vicar of Marlott); Fred Bryant (Dairyman Crick); Carolyn Pickles (Marian); Suzanna Hamilton (Izz); Caroline Embling (Retty); Josine Comellas (Mrs. Crick); Arielle Dombasle (Mercy Chant); David Markham (Reverend Mr. Clare); Pascale de Boysson (Mrs. Clare); John Bett (Felix Clare); Tom Chadbon (Cuthbert Clare); Dicken Ashworth (Farmer Groby); Patsy Smart (Housekeeper); Patsy Rowlands (Landlady); Tony Church (Parson Tringham); Brigid Erin Bates, Jeanne Biras (Girls in meadow); Géraldine Arzul, Stephanie Treille, Elodie Warnod, Ben Reeks (Durbeyfield children); Lesley Dunlop, Marilyne Even (Girls in henhouse); Jean-Jacques Daubin (Bailiff); Jacob Weisbluth (Yokel at barn dance); Jacques Mathou, Véronique Alain (Harvesters); John Barrett, Ann Tirard (Old dairy band); Gordon Richardson (Parson at wedding); Jimmy Gardner (Pedler); Forbes Collins (New tenant); Keith Buckley, John Moore (Postmen); Graham Weston (Constable); Reg Dent (Carter).

 

 

NOTES:  Certainly the most popular and most admired of the film adaptations of a Hardy work--as well as a significant film in its own right--Tess marked a personal and professional triumph for director Roman Polanski.  The project had been first suggested to him by his wife, Sharon Tate, who was later murdered by the Manson "family," and it is to Tate's memory that the film is dedicated.  Later wanted on statutory rape charges in America and unable to work in Britain because of an extradition agreement with the US, Polanski shot the film in France with a budget supplied by British and French investors.  The unorthodox locations, the casting of a German teenager in the central role, and Polanski's personal reputation as a predator and as a creator of dark, nihilistic films caused many critics to approach the film with skepticism.  Most, however, were won over by Tess's stunning photography and by Polanski's subtle and restrained treatment of the material.  The film was nominated for six American Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director, and Best Score; and won for Cinematography, Art Direction, and Costume Design.  Its cinematography was also awarded a BAFTA and a British Society of Cinematographers award; and Tess received French César awards for Best Film, Best Director, and Best Cinematography.  Tess is widely available in DVD and videocassette formats.

 

Jude

Production Companies: BBC, Revolution Films (UK); PolyGram Filmed Entertainment (US).  Distributor: Gramercy.  Director: Michael Winterbottom.  Producer: Andrew Eaton.  Screenplay: Hossein Amini.  Editor: Trevor Waite.  Director of Photography (Color and black and white): Eduardo Serra.  Art Direction: Andrew Rothschild.  Production Design: Joseph Bennett.  Music: Adrian Johnston.  Associate Producer: Sheila Fraser Milne.  Executive Producers: Mark Shivas and Stewart Till.  Casting: Simone Ireland and Vanessa Pereira.  Costumes: Janty Yates.  Hairstylists and Makeup: Mel Gibson and Amanda Warburton.  Assistant Director: Matthew Baker.  First Assistant Director: Howard Arundel.  Second Assistant Director: John Duthie.  Third Assistant Director: Damian Wright.  Sound Editors: Jeremy Child and Kant Pan.  Boom: Kate Morath.  Sound Mixer: Martin Trevis.  Set Designer:  Andy Nicholson.  Set Decoration:  Judy Farr.  Property Master:  Paul Purdy  Special Effects: John Markwell.  Visual Effects Designers: Mimi Abers and Paddy Eason.  Visual Effects: Dennis Michelson.  Visual Effects Producer: Alison O’Brien.  Scanning and Recording Producer: Kevin Phelan.  Visual Effects Assistant: Tim Wellspring.  Stunt Coordinator: Roy Alon.  Unit Manager: Josh Dynevor.  Location Manager: David Pinnington.  Second Unit Director of Photography: Andrew Speller. Filmed on locations in Durham, Northumberland, Yorkshire, Surrey, England; Edinburgh, Scotland; New Zealand; and at Twickenham Film Studios, London.  Sound Mix: Dolby Digital.  Running time: 123 minutes. Premiere: 10 September 1996, Toronto Film Festival; UK release: 4 October 1996; US release: 18 October 1996.    

Cast: Christopher Eccleston (Jude Fawley); Kate Winslet (Sue Bridehead); Liam Cunningham (Phillotson); Rachel Griffiths (Arabella); June Whitfield (Aunt Drusilla); Ross Colvin Turnbull (Little Jude; “Juey”); James Daley (Jude as a Boy); Berwick Kaler (Farmer Troutham); James Nesbitt (Uncle Joe); Mark Lambert (Tinker Taylor); Sean McKenzie, Richard Albrecht (Stonemasons); Caitlin Bossley (Anny); Emma Turner (Sarah); Lorraine Hilton (Shopkeeper); Amanda Ryan (Gypsy Saleswoman); Vernon Dobtcheff (Curator); David Tennant (Drunk Undergraduate); Darren Tighe (Punter); Paul Copley (Mr. Willis); Ken Jones (Mr. Biles); Roger Ashton-Griffiths (Auctioneer); Raymond Ross (Old Man); Freda Dowie (Elderly Landlady); Dexter Fletcher (Priest); Moray Hunter (Politician); Adrian Bower (Blacksmith); Kerry Shale (Showman); Billie Dee Roberts (Little Sister); Chantel Neary (Baby); James Scanlon (Newborn Baby).

NOTES:  In the seventeen years that elapsed between the premiere of Polanski's Tess and this adaptation of Hardy's Jude the Obscure, the British "heritage film" became one of the most popular genres in cinema.  The handsome and impeccably-acted Merchant-Ivory adaptations of E. M. Forster's novels, and similar films based on novels by Henry James and Jane Austen, clicked with audiences and reviewers and figured prominently at film awards ceremonies.  However, many critics--of film, literature, and culture--have charged that such films hide the more disturbing aspects of British history and literature under a comfortable veneer.  With the idea of "destroying the heritage film from within,"2 Hossein Amini crafted his script as an angry social indictment of classism and social inequalities.  Director Michael Winterbottom at the time was a veteran of television dramas and documentaries and had directed two other theatrical films.  To Jude he brought a documentary-style realism  and a tone of almost unbearable bleakness.  Like the novel that inspired it, this film is not to everyone's taste: many sequences are painful to watch and some scenes are disturbing.  The film had a brief run in British theaters, and in the US it was relegated to the art house circuit.  Jude was available in both video and DVD formats in the UK and America, but it is now out of print in these markets.  The film may still be obtained through Asian markets.

The Woodlanders

Production Companies: Arts Council of England; Channel Four Films (Films Four International); Pathé Productions; River Films (UK).  Distributors: Pathé (UK), Miramax (US).  Director: Phil Agland.  Producers: Phil Agland and Barney Reisz.  Screenplay: David Rudkin.  Editor: David Dickie.  Director of Photography: Ashley Rowe.  Art Direction: John Frankish.  Production Design: Andy Harris.  Music: George Fenton.  Casting: Susie Figgis, Patsy Pollock, Gail Stevens, and Andy Pryor.  Costumes: Susannah Buxton.  Makeup and Hair Design: Aileen Seaton.  Assistant Director: Konrad Jay.  Second Assistant Director: Richard Styles.  Third Assistant Director: Barbara Mulcahy.  Supervising Sound Editor: Rodney Glenn.  Sound Mixer: Mark Holding.  Set Designer: Andy Nicholson.  Set Decoration: Tracey Gallagher. Special Effects Supervisor: Stuart Buidon.  Associate Editor: Tim Arrowsmith.  Dialect Coach: Catherine Charlton.  Production Manager: Mark Huffam.  Unit Manager: David Boardman.  Location Manager: Amanda Stevens.  Filmed on locations in Hampshire, Dorset, and Wiltshire, UK.  Filmed in Technicolor.  Sound Mix: Dolby.  Running time: 93 minutes.  Premiere: 6 February 1998.

Cast: Rufus Sewell (Giles Winterbourne); Emily Woof (Grace Melbury); Cal MacAninch (Edred Fitzpiers); Tony Haygarth (Mr. Melbury); Jodhi May (Marty South); Polly Walker (Felice Charmond); Walter Sparrow (Old Creedle); Sheila Burrell (Grandma Oliver); Michael Culkin (Percomb); Amanda Ryan (Sukey); Lara J. West (Vinny); Robert Blythe (Tangs); William Harry (Tim); John Croft (Upjohn; William Chubb (Auctioneer); Andrew Tansey (Coachman); Geoffrey Beevers (Agent); Caroline John (Housekeeper); Dawn McDavid (Woodland wife); Vincent Franklin (Stable lad); Sam Rowe (Street vendor); Emily Joyce (Libby); Kate Blackham, Jennifer Luckraft, Tara Woodward (Village girls); Martin Walsh, Justin Gratten (Village boys).

NOTES:  While Michael WInterbottom's Jude was an assault on the British Heritage film, Phil Agland's adaptation of The Woodlanders embraces its cultural (if not entirely literary) heritage.  Beautifully photographed in authentic "Wessex" locales over a period of one year to capture the seasons and featuring a cast of popular and respected actors (Jodhi May and Polly Walker would also appear in the 2003 TV miniseries of The Mayor of Casterbridge; while Tony Haygath's Melbury would be the first of three Hardy characters he'd play), the film creates an idealized vision of love and loss in rural England.  Admirers of Hardy's novel, however, may find themselves dissatisfied with the extensive cuts made in the story (the characters of Marty South and Felice Charmond are pushed into the background) and by the radical alteration to Hardy's original ending.  Accordingly, such changes were made at the insistence of the film's American distributor3, Miramax--which failed to give The Woodlanders a theatrical release in the US.  Neither a popular nor a critical success, The Woodlanders remains one of the least-known of the film adaptations of Hardy's fiction.  It had long been available on DVD and videocassette in the UK; in 2006, The Woodlanders finally appeared in America via a DVD release.

 

       

 

The Scarlet Tunic

Production Companies: Scarlet Films PLC; Bigger Picture Company, Ltd.; Scorpio Productions, Ltd.  Distributor: Independent Feature Films. (UK).  Director: Stuart St. Paul.  Producers: Daniel Figuero and Zygi Kamasa.  Screenplay: Colin Clements, Mark Jenkins, and Stuart St. Paul; based on Hardy’s short story “The Melancholy Hussar of the German Legion.”  Editor: Don Fairservice.  Director of Photography: Malcolm McLean.  Production Design: Richard Elton.  Music: John Scott.  Executive Producer: William P. Cartlidge.  Co-Executive Producer: Tom McCabe.  Co-Producers: Philip Keenan and Simon Price.  Costumes: Gary Lane.  Makeup and Hairstylist: Lesley Lamont-Fisher.  First Assistant Directors: James Corbett and Beth Elliot.  Second Assistant Directors: Carwyn Jones and Simon Price.  Third Assistant Director: Lawrence Thornton.  Sound Re-Recording Mixer: Ian Tapp.  Special Effects Coordinator: Graham Aikman.  Location Manager: Angela Howard-Bent.  Production Supervisor: Ed Harper.  Historian: Stephen Guy. Filmed on locations in Dorset, England.  Color by Kodak and Fuji.  Running time: 88 minutes.  Premiere: 12 June 1998.

Cast: Jean-Marc Barr (Matthaus Singer); Emma Fielding (Frances Grove); Simon Callow (Captain John Fairfax); Jack Shepherd (Dr. Edward Grove); John Sessions (Humphrey Gould); Lynda Bellingham (Emily Marlowe); Thomas Lockyer (Christoph Singer); Andrew Tiernan (Muller); Gareth Hale (William Parsons); Lisa Faulkner (Amy Parsons); Roger May (Fridon); Laura Aikman (Dotty Marlowe); Erich Redman (Strasser); Jean Heard (Lizzie); Tom McCabe (Officer Hubbard); Philip Keenan (Bone); Nick Prideaux (Fisherman); Mark Sugden (Hussar Officer); Charlotte Lemoignan (Christophine); Helen Henessey, Evie Fenton, Eva Harvey (Maids); George Withers, John Samways (Gardeners); Katrina Verdon-Roe, Amy Elton (Bar Girls); Paul Villey (Messenger); Stephen Blogg (Army Cook).

 

NOTES:  A genuine oddity among adaptations of Hardy's fiction, The Scarlet Tunic seems inspired less by "The Melancholy Hussar" (which had been filmed before as part of the 1973 Wessex Tales series) than by the spate of Jane Austen adaptations that were popular in the 1990s--even down to the Regency settings, the focus on "improper" love between the classes, and the resemblance of Emma Fielding to Emma Thompson, who wrote and starred in Ang Lee's Sense and Sensibility (1995)--while Simon Callow's campy, mustache-twirling martinet would perhaps be more at home in a Carry On film.  Produced on the cheap with funds from investors who were all given minor roles in the film and distributed to a chain of independently-run theaters in Britain,4 The Scarlet Tunic barely registered at the UK box office and in America was broadcast on the cable "Romance Classics" network.  The film can be found on DVD and video in British and American markets.

 

The Claim

Production Companies: Alliance Atlantis Communications (Canada); Arts Council of England; BBC; DB Entertainment (UK); Grosvenor Park Productions (UK); Le Studio Canal+ (France); Pathé Productions (UK); Revolution Films (UK).  Distributor: United Artists. Director: Michael Winterbottom.  Producer: Andrew Eaton.  Screenplay: Frank Cottrell Boyce; inspired by Hardy’s novel The Mayor of CasterbridgeEditor: Trevor Waite.  Director of Photography: Alwin H. Kuchler.  Art Direction: Ken Rempel.  Production Design: Ken Rempel and Mark Tildesley.  Set Decoration: Paul Healy.  Music: Michael Nyman.  Co-Producer: Douglas Berquist.  Executive Producers: Andrea Calderwood, Alexis Lloyd, Mark Shivas, and David M. Thompson.  Line Producer: Anita Overland.  Casting: Kerry Barden, Wendy Brazington, Billy Hopkins, and Suzanne Smith.  Costumes: Joanne Hansen.  Makeup: Bryon Callaghan.  Hairstylist: Don Olson.  Second Unit Directors: Douglas Berquist and Matt Palmer.  First Assistant Director: Nick Laws.  Second Assistant Director: Kayla Popp.  Second Assistant Directors: Mark Ambury and Pierre Tremblay.  Third Assistant Directors: Matthew Kershaw and Brad Logel.  Unit Production Manager: Tom Benz.  Production Supervisor: Gina Carter.  Unit Production Manager, Colorado: Tony Schweikle.  Sound Editor: Ian Wilson.  ADR Mixer: Peter Greaves.  Sound Re-Recording Mixer: Adrian Rhodes.  Production Sound Mixer/Sound Recordist: George Tarrant.  Special Effects Coordinator: Gordon Davis.  Special Effects: James Paradis and Maurice Routely.  Assistant Special Effects: Chad Dolan and Jason Dolan.  Digital Sound Effects Editor: Peter Christelis.  Digital Effects Producer: Steve Garrad.  Digital Compositor, Cinesite: Chris Gibbons.  Stunt Coordinator: Kirk Jarrett. Filmed on locations in Calgary, Alberta, Canada; and in Durango, Colorado.  Filmed in DeLuxe Color.  Sound Mix: Dolby Digital.  Running time: 120 minutes.  Premiere: 29 December 2000, in Los Angeles and New York; 2 February 2001, in UK.

Cast: Peter Mullan (Daniel Dillon); Milla Jovovich (Lucia); Wes Bentley (Dalglish); Nastassja Kinski (Elena Burn); Sarah Polley (Hope Burn); Shirley Henderson (Annie); Julian Richings (Bellanger); Sean McGinley (Mr. Sweetley); Randy Birch (Priest); Tom McCamus (Burn); Frank Zotter (Photographer); Artur Ciastkowski (Delany); Barry Ward (Young Dillon); Karolina Muller (Young Elena); David Lereaney (Saloon Actor); Valerie Planche (Chippie No. 1); Grant Linneberg (Miner No. 2); Jimmy Herman (Miner No. 3); Marie Brassard (French Sue); Phillipa Peak (Sarah); Kate Hennig (Vauneen); Fernando Davalos (Barman); Marc Hollogne (Dr. Benoit); Ron Anderson (Stagecoach Driver); Marty Antonini (German); Lydia Lau (Li); Royal Sproule (Grimes); Tim Koetting (Hotel Clerk); Billy Morton (Miner No. 1); Duncan Fraser (Crocker); Landon Hicks (Young Miner); Matthew Johnson (Miner); Janelle Loughlin (Beggar Girl); Linda Eve Miller (Tobacco Chippie No. 2); Karen Minish (Opera Singer); Trevor Allan Davies, John Goulart (Members of Saloon Band); Gil Rivera Blas (Mexican); Christopher Hunt (Assay Clerk); Jess Maldaner (Miner No. 6); Myrna Vallance (Saloon Girl).

 

 

 

 

NOTES:  Not exactly an adaptation of The Mayor of Casterbridge; rather, The Claim transports the novel's major characters and basic situations to that most un-Hardyan of locales: the frozen Sierra Nevada mountains in post-Gold Rush California.  Much of Hardy's interest in respectability among social hierarchies and his focus on an ancient setting are gone; in their place is a rawer, wilder story that seems to expose the most basic and brutal elements that lie just under the surface of the novel.  The film marks the second foray into Hardy adaptations by both director Michael Winterbottom, who with The Claim added the Western to the ever-growing list of film genres in which he has worked, and Nastassja Kinski, who brings much the same tragic earnestness to her role of the castoff wife, Elena, as she brought to Tess more than twenty years earlier.  When released in 2000, The Claim won mostly favorable reviews, with many critics comparing its bleak settings and outlook to Robert Altman's classic McCabe & Mrs. Miller (1971), but the film never really found an audience, owing perhaps to poor distribution.  In many places in America it played only briefly in the theaters--the week before it was released on DVD and video.  The Claim is still widely available in both formats.

1  Except where indicated, the information on this page is derived from my book, Seeing Hardy.

Amini, quoted in Gibson, "Fewer Weddings and More Funerals," p. 119.

Dale Kramer, "The Woodlanders: The Conflicting Visions of Phil Agland and Thomas Hardy," in Wright, ed., Thomas Hardy on Screen, pp. 140-52.    Page 152 referenced here.

Roy Pierce-Jones, "Screening the Short Stories: From the 1950s to the 1990s," in Wright, ed., Thomas Hardy on Screen, pp. 61-75.  Pages 73-4 referenced here.

 

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